When to cite:
- Whenever you use factual information or data found in a source.
- Whenever you quote verbatim.
- Whenever you summarize, paraphrase, or use ideas, opinions, interpretations, or conclusions articulated by another person.
- Whenever you use a source’s distinctive structure, organizing strategy, or method.
- Whenever you mention in passing some aspect of another work, unless that work is widely known.
- In general, if you are in doubt as to whether or not you should cite a source, cite.
When not to cite
- When the source and page location of a relevant passage is obvious from an earlier citation. For instance, if you refer to the same page in your source for multiple sentences in a row, you do not need to cite the source again until you refer to a different page or start a new paragraph.
- When dealing with 'common knowledge,' which is knowledge that is familiar or easily available from multiple sources and isn't arguable or based upon a particular interpretation.
- When you use highly identifiable phrases such as "all the world's a stage" or "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," there is no need to remind the reader where such phrases first appeared.
- When you draw on ideas or phrases that arose in conversation with friends, family, or classmates.
Misuse of sources:
PLAGIARISM: Plagiarism is the passing off of a source’s information, ideas, or language as your own by omitting to cite them. Plagiarism usually takes one of these forms:
- The failure to cite an idea
- The failure to cite a structure or organizing strategy
- The failure to cite information or data from a source
- The failure to place a verbatim phrase or passage within quotation marks. Note here that even if you cite a phrase or passage, but fail to place it within quotation marks, it is still considered plagiarism.
For further tips on citing sources and avoiding plagiarism see: http://www.hamilton.edu/academics/resource/wc/usingsources.html
For Occidental's Policy on academic honesty see: http://www.oxy.edu/student-handbook/academic-ethics
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