Citation Styles and Online Resources
- The most common citation formats you will be asked to use are MLA, APA, and CMS. Be sure, however, to use the format required for the given paper/assignment.
- For MLA, APA, CMS (Chicago Manual of Style), and CBE (Scientific Style and Format) generally, see the online companion site for Diane Hacker's A Writer's Reference athttp://www.bedfordstmartins.com/hacker/writersref/index.html
- For MLA specifically, see http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_mla.html
- For APA specifically, see http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
- For CMS specifically, see http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/cmosfaq.html
- For CBE specifically, see http://www.lib.ohio-state.edu/guides/cbegd.html
- In citing electronic resources in accordance with either MLA, APA, CMS, or CBE guidelines see http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/citex.html
- Online resources that must be cited include:
- World Wide Web site
- Email message
- Web discussion forum posting
- Listserv message
- Newsgroup message
- Real-time communication
- Telnet, FTP, and gopher sites
Citing Across Disciplines:
Because each discipline uses its own format for citations, below is a list of links to online resources when writing in a particular discipline.
Economics/Business Management: http://www.amanet.org/books/catalog/0814402976.htm
Law/Legal Studies: http://www.legalbluebook.com/
An annotated bibliography is a summary and evaluation of each of the sources used in writing a paper or other assignment.
- To help you learn about your topic
- To help you formulate your thesis/arguments
- Summary - What are the primary arguments? What topics did the author cover?
- Assessment - Is the source useful? How does it compare with other sources read? Is the information reliable? Is the information subjective or objective?
- Reflection - How will you use this source? How does it help to shape your arguments?
- Bibliographic information (author, title, publisher, date, etc.) is generally written in accordance with either MLA, APA, CMS, or another specified citation style.
- Annotation for each source is written in paragraph form underneath the bibliographic information.
For more information on writing annotated bibliographies see:
For sample annotated bibliographies see:
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